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2013年英语六级模拟考试试题(4)

育龙网核心提示:2013年英语六级模拟考试试题(4):Conventional wisdom about conflict seems pretty much cut and dried. Too little conflict breeds apathy (冷漠) and stagnation (呆滞)。

 

Conventional wisdom about conflict seems pretty much cut and dried. Too little conflict breeds apathy (冷漠) and stagnation (呆滞). Too much conflict leads to divisiveness (分裂) and hostility. Moderate levels of conflict, however, can spark creativity and motivate people in a healthy and competitive way.
Recent research by Professor Charles R. Schwenk, however, suggests that the optimal level of conflict may be more complex to determine than these simple generalizations. He studied perceptions of conflict among a sample of executives. Some of the executives worked for profit-seeking organizations and others for not-for-profit organizations.
Somewhat surprisingly, Schwenk found that opinions about conflict varied systematically as a function of the type of organization. Specifically, managers in not-for-profit organizations strongly believed that conflict was beneficial to their organizations and that it promoted higher quality decision making than might be achieved in the absence of conflict.
Managers of for-profit organizations saw a different picture. They believed that conflict generally was damaging and usually led to poor-quality decision making in their organizations. Schwenk interpreted these results in terms of the criteria for effective decision making suggested by the executives. In the profit-seeking organizations, decision-making effectiveness was most often assessed in financial terms. The executives believed that consensus rather than conflict enhanced financial indicators.
In the not-for-profit organizations, decision-making effectiveness was defined from the perspective of satisfying constituents. Given the complexities and ambiguities associated with satisfying many diverse constituents executives perceived that conflict led to more considered and acceptable decisions.
1.In the eyes of the author, conventional opinion on conflict is ________.
A) wrong
B) oversimplified
C) misleading
D) unclear
答案:B
2.Professor Charles R. Schwenk’s research shows ________.
A) the advantages and disadvantages of conflict
B) the real value of conflict
C) the difficulty in determining the optimal level of conflict
D) the complexity of defining the roles of conflict
答案:C
3.We can learn from Schwenk’s research that ________.
A) a person’s view of conflict is influenced by the purpose of his organization
B) conflict is necessary for managers of for-profit organizations
C) different people resolve conflicts in different ways
D) it is impossible for people to avoid conflict
答案:A
4.The passage suggests that in for-profit organizations ________.
A) there is no end of conflict
B) expression of different opinions is encouraged
C) decisions must be justifiable
D) success lies in general agreement
答案:D
5.People working in a not-for-profit organization ________.
A) seem to be difficult to satisfy
B) are free to express diverse opinions
C) are less effective in making decisions
D) find it easier to reach agreement
答案:B

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